JC virus-associated central nervous system diseases in HIV-infected patients in Brazil: clinical presentations, associated factors with mortality and outcome
Felipe Piza1; Maria Cristina Fink2; Gilberto S. Nogueira1; Claudio S. Pannuti2; Augusto C. Penalva de Oliveira3; José Ernesto Vidal1,3
Keywords: JC virus; Leukoencephalopathy, progressive multifocal; Diagnosis; Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; Brazil
INTRODUCTION: Several presentations of neurologic complications caused by JC virus (JCV) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have been described and need to be distinguished from the "classic" form of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). The objectives of this study were: 1) to describe the spectrum and frequency of presentations of JCV-associated central nervous system (CNS) diseases; 2) identify factors associated with in-hospital mortality of patients with JCV-associated CNS disease; and 3) to estimate the overall mortality of this population.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of HIV-infected patients admitted consecutively for JCV-associated CNS diseases in a referral teaching center in São Paulo, Brazil, from 2002 to 2007. All patients with laboratory confirmed JCV-associated CNS diseases were included using the following criteria: compatible clinical and radiological features associated with the presence of JCV DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid. JCV-associated CNS diseases were classified as follows: 1) classic PML; 2) inflammatory PML; and 3) JC virus granule cell neuronopathy (GCN).
RESULTS: We included 47 cases. JCV-associated CNS diseases were classified as follows: 1) classic PML: 42 (89%); 2) inflammatory PML: three (6%); and 3) JC virus GCN: four (9%). Nosocomial pneumonia (p = 0.003), previous diagnosis of HIV infection (p = 0.03), and imaging showing cerebellar and/or brainstem involvement (p = 0.02) were associated with in-hospital mortality. Overall mortality during hospitalization was 34%.
CONCLUSIONS: Novel presentations of JCV-associated CNS diseases were observed in our setting; nosocomial pneumonia, previous diagnosis of HIV infection, and cerebellar and/or brainstem involvement were associated with in-hospital mortality; and overall mortality was high.